Архивы рубрики ‘BOILERS For POWER and PROCESS’

Capturing Basic Design Data

Boiler design is divided into two phases: 1. Process and basic engineering consisting of A. Thermal design for sizing of all HSs, auxiliaries, and P&I schemes B. Firing equipment design and integration with the main boiler C. Layout design of total boiler plant and PPs D. Electrical and instrumentation engineering as per scope 2. Detailed […]

Appendix B: Table of Combustion Constants

On 40 GO Ft3/ft3 of Combustible lb/lb of Combustible —————————————————————————————————— Experimental Error in Heats of Required for Required for Combustion Combustion Flue Products Combustion Flue Products ±% Density Related*5 Heat of Combustion0 1 Carbon C 12.01 Gross Net*1 Gross 14,093e Netd 14,093e O2 N2 Air Co2 H2o N2 O2 2.664 N2 8.863 Air 11.527 Co2 […]

Appendix A: Boiler Calculations

This appendix is included to enhance the appreciation of the fundamentals and to sim­plify basic process calculations. • Boilers encounter different steaming conditions using a variety of fuels, and are calculation-intensive. All boiler users are required to perform the peripheral or process calculations. For that reason they are included here. • The sizing calculations of […]

Heat Recovery Steam Generators

Until early 1970s, the HRSGs were merely simple HXs placed behind GTs for heat extrac­tion. As the GTs became bigger, the oil or gas package boilers were modified for the GT exhaust. As the GTs grew enormously in size and complexity, the HRSGs also kept pace. They assumed a distinct form of their own. Today, […]

Gas Turbines

Gas turbines derive their name from their working medium. They are also called combus­tion turbines. Gas turbines first made their appearance in the late 1940s as revolutionary self-contained power plants. They were initially used for peaking duties because of their quick starting capabilities and small sizes. Smaller GTs are also widely used as mechanical drives […]

Heat Recovery Steam Generators and Waste Heat Recovery Boilers

WHRBs are bulky and expensive. The cost of steam and power generated is higher, even with input heat. It makes sense to have a waste heat system only if any one of the following conditions is met: • The cost of the regular fuels is high and hence the high-cost power and steam from waste […]

Waste Gas Firing (Heat Recovery Steam Generators)

Introduction Many industrial continuous processes produce large amounts of hot waste gases. Genera­tion of steam or power from these waste gases has been practiced for a long time. The waste gases can be at high, medium, or low temperature at —1000, 500, or 300°C, respectively. The gases can be clean or dust-laden, erosive, and even […]

Pulverized Fuel Boilers

Design Principles Chapter 6 discusses more details. No boiler is designed from the first step. The previous experiences of the customer, the consultant, and the contractors are required to evolve a new design by modifying a suc­cessful model of the nearest size. The fuel characteristics play the most important role. The technical specifications of the […]

Pulverized Firing Burners

Pulverized firing burners are mounted on the furnace where the PF, PA, and SA come together to get properly mixed and enter combustion. Combustion of the pulverized coal particle starts with immediate flash drying of moisture and devolatilization due to the combination of intense radiation from the flame and convection from the hot gases. • […]

Milling Plant

Suction and Pressurized Milling In suction milling, the exhauster fan is located between the mill and the boiler. It pulls the hot air from the AH outlet through the mill and picks up the ground coal from the mill to deliver the mixture to the burners. Hot air is suitably mixed with ambient air to […]