Архивы рубрики ‘Industrial Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam’

Fans, Pumps, and Steam Turbines

9.01 Determining steam rates in steam turbines; actual and theoretical steam rates; determining steam quantity required to generate electricity; calculat­ing enthalpy of steam after isentropic and actual expansion 9.02a Cogeneration and its advantages 9.02b Comparison of energy utilization between a cogeneration plant and a power plant 9.3 Which is the better location for tapping deaeration […]

Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance

8.1 Estimating surface area of heat transfer equipment; overall heat trans­ Fer coefficient; approximating overall heat transfer coefficient in water tube boilers, fire tube boilers, and air heaters; log-mean temperature difference 8.2 Estimating tube-side heat transfer coefficient; simplified expression for Estimating tube-side coefficient 8.3 Estimating tube-side coefficient for air, flue gas, water, and steam 8.4 […]

Fluid Flow, Valve Sizing, and Pressure Drop Calculations

7.1 Sizing flow meters; discharge coefficients for orifices, venturis, and nozzles; permanent pressure drop across flow meters; correcting steam flow readings for different operating conditions 7.2 Sizing orifices for water flow measurement 7.3 Sizing orifices for steam flow measurement 7.4 Significance of permanent pressure drop in flow meters; cost of permanent pressure drop across flow […]

Fuels, Combustion, and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters

6.1 Estimating HHV (higher heating value) and LHV (lower heating value) of fuels from ultimate analysis; relating heat inputs based on HHV and LHV; relating boiler efficiencies based on HHV and LHV 6.2 Estimating HHV and LHV of fuel oils if °API is known 6.3 Calculating cost of fuels on MM Btu (million Btu) basis; […]


A Area of opening, in.2, or duct cross section, ft2 A, B Factors used in Q5.26 BD Blowdown, fraction BHP Boiler horsepower C Corrosion allowance, in. Cc Initial investment, $ Cd Coefficient of discharge Ce Cost of electricity, $/kWh Cp Specific heat, Btu/lb °F Dp Tube or outer diameter, in. Di Tube or pipe inner […]

Basic Steam Plant Calculations

5.1 Converting liquid flow in lb/h to gpm, and vice versa; relating density, specific gravity, and specific volume 5.2 Relating head of liquid or gas column to pressure; converting feet of liquid to psi; relating inches of water column of gas to psi and feet of gas column 5.3 Estimating density of gases; relating molecular […]


It is easier to design for a given NOx or CO level in a new boiler or HRSG than in an older one, because we can design around the various options and size the boiler or HRSG accordingly. Modifying an existing boiler or HRSG to meet new emission levels presents more challenges. For example, the […]


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are unburned hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight than methane. Sources of VOCs include combustion products, automobile exhaust solvents, and paints, to mention a few. When released into the atmosphere, VOCs contribute to the formation of harmful ozone and are health hazards, particularly because of their high molecular weights. [Unburned hydro­carbons (UHCs) […]


Emission particulates from combustion sources consist of compounds such as sulfates, nitrates, and unburned compounds. Particulate matter emissions are classified into two categories, PM and PM10, which refer to particulates 10 mm or more and less than 10 mm in diameter, respectively. All particulates pose health problems, but small particulates can be inhaled and can […]


Sulfur present in fuels gets converted to SO2, and in the presence of a catalyst the 502 is converted to SO3, which reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid vapor. Sulfuric acid causes environmental damage through corrosion. SO2 and 503 are together referred to as SOx. The level of SOx depends on the amount […]